Current modules of the Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) standard provide language-specific hyphenation dictionaries. The hyphen is sometimes used to hide letters in words (filleting for redaction or censoring), as in G-d, although an en dash can be used as well ("G–d"). It can also be used to indicate a range of values, although many styles prefer an en dash (see examples at Dash § En dash §§ Ranges of values). The non-breaking space exists for similar reasons. The hyphen-minus character is also often used when specifying command-line options. As Unicode is identical to ASCII (the 1967 version) for all encodings up to 127, the number 4510, i.e. Compound modifiers are groups of two or more words that jointly modify the meaning of another word. Jane Doe and John Smith might become Jane and John Smith-Doe, or Doe-Smith, for instance. For example, W-O-R-D spells "word". Another use of hyphens is that employed by programs written with pipelining in mind: a single hyphen may be recognized in lieu of a filename, with the hyphen then serving as an indicator that a standard stream, instead of a file, is to be worked with. 4. Click on the resource you want to cite from the Source Type column on the right (or from the drop-down menu if using a mobile device). For example, some style guides prefer the construction high school students, to high-school students. In general, cite: what is available on the work you are citing, and; what would make it easy for another person to find that work. If you are using your own research data, see Section 8.36 in the APA manual. Even the Unicode Standard regularly uses the hyphen-minus rather than the Unicode hyphen. This page explains how to cite authors and editors as part of your APA reference list. It becomes visible only after word wrapping at the end of a line. Titles and Containers. For example, short-term and long-term plans may be written as short- and long-term plans. [16][17] Although the expression is technically ambiguous ("students of a high school"/"school students who are high"), it would normally be formulated differently if other than the first meaning were intended. When the first modifier in a compound is an adverb ending in -ly (e.g., "a poorly written novel"), various style guides advise no hyphen. [19][additional citation(s) needed] However, some do allow for this use. [a] However, with symbols for SI units (such as m or kg)—as opposed to the names of these units (such as metre or kilogram)—the numerical value is always separated from it with a space: a 25 kg sphere. Some editors prefer to avoid suspending such pairs, choosing instead to write out both words in full.[21]. For other uses, see, For Wikipedia's own standards for hyphen use, see, With numbers greater than two, where a plural noun would normally be used in an unhyphenated predicative position, the singular form of the noun is generally used in the hyphenated form used attributively. Hence, one must observe correct punctuation guidelines when writing the author’s names for bibliographic entries. Gutenberg solved the problem of making each line the same length to fit the frame by inserting a hyphen as the last element at the right-side margin. Unix-like systems use / as a directory separator and, while \ is legal in filenames, it is awkward to use as the shell uses it as an escape character. His double hyphen appears throughout the Bible as a short, double line inclined to the right at a 60-degree angle: ⸗. Similarly, the hyphen in little-celebrated paintings clarifies that one is not speaking of little paintings. #APAcitations #APAreferences #culturalsensitivity, Thoughts on publishing in a journal for the…. 2. For example, "A cost-effective method was used" and "The method was cost-effective" (cost-effective is a permanent compound that is hyphenated as a headword in various dictionaries). Some writers use two hyphen-minuses -- to represent an em dash in ASCII text. "[18] But permanent compounds, found as headwords in dictionaries, are treated as invariable, so if they are hyphenated in the cited dictionary, the hyphenation will be used in both attributive and predicative positions. These norms prescribe writing dates using hyphens: 1789-07-14 is the new way of writing the first Bastille Day. She and her…” Plaques on the wall of the Moscow Kremlin are written this way. The use of hyphens is called hyphenation. When a compound modifier other than an adverb–adjective combination appears before a term, the compound modifier is often hyphenated to prevent misunderstanding, such as in American-football player or little-celebrated paintings. This is also the typical date format used in large parts of Eastern Europe and Asia, although sometimes with other separators than the hyphen. The date (in parentheses) should follow the author's name. We also have a team of customer support agents to deal with every difficulty that you may face when working with us or placing an order on our website. The non-breaking hyphen addresses this need. Skinner, B. F.) Alphabetize the list by the first author's last name of of each citation (see sections 9.44-9.49) Capitalize only the first word, the first after a colon or em dash, and proper nouns; Don't capitalize the second word of a hyphenated compound However, if the compound is a familiar one, it is usually unhyphenated. [28] Examination of an original copy on vellum (Hubay index #35) in the U. S. Library of Congress shows that Gutenberg's movable type was set justified in a uniform style, 42 equal lines per page. A government-monitoring program is a program that monitors the government, whereas a government monitoring program is a government program that monitors something else. For example Julia Louis-Dreyfus is a descendant of Louis Lemlé Dreyfus whose son was Léopold Louis-Dreyfus. "Shuh-shuh-gah" (from Ojibwe zhashagi, "blue heron") in The Song of Hiawatha. One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper. That is, it does not force a line break in an inconvenient place when the text is later reflowed. Citing an Entire Source: Author Name Included in Preceding Sentence . Who We Are. DOS, OS/2 and Windows simultaneously support both \ and / as directory separators, but / is also used to introduce and separate switches to shell commands (unless reconfigured to use the hyphen-minus in DOS). Properly citing publications in your writing adds to your credibility as an author, makes it easier for your readers to find the works you have cited, and makes the cited publications more searchable to other researchers. 3,023 Likes, 39 Comments - William & Mary (@william_and_mary) on Instagram: “Move-In looks a little different this year, and we know there are mixed emotions right now. 2. The word segmentation rules of most text systems consider a hyphen to be a word boundary and a valid point at which to break a line when flowing text. (For other aspects of en dash–versus–hyphen use, see Dash § En dash.). "[20] In the 19th century, it was common to hyphenate adverb–adjective modifiers with the adverb ending in -ly (e.g., "a craftily-constructed chair"). However, as the Unicode hyphen is inconvenient to enter on most keyboards and the glyphs for the Unicode hyphen and the hyphen-minus are identical in most fonts (Lucida Sans Unicode is one of the few exceptions), use of the hyphen-minus as the hyphen character is very common. MLA 8th edition citation requires writers to include reference and container’s titles. ), This article is about the punctuation mark. On the other hand, in the phrase a hungry pizza-lover, the hyphen will often be omitted (a hungry pizza lover), as "pizza" cannot be an adjective and the phrase is therefore unambiguous. This method has gained influence within North America, as most common computer filesystems make the use of slashes difficult or impossible. In some countries only the woman hyphenates her birth surname, appending her husband's surname. Such is the case when used to describe dimensional measurements of weight, size, and time, under the rationale that, like other compound modifiers, they take hyphens in attributive position (before the modified noun),[21] although not in predicative position (after the modified noun). Many last names in China and Korea are one syllable, and first names often consist of two names (often hyphenated). B. Soft hyphens are inserted into the text at the positions where hyphenation may occur. Similarly, there's a man-eating shark in these waters is nearly the opposite of there's a man eating shark at table 6; the first is a shark, and the second a man. Uses such as "applied and sociolinguistics" (instead of "applied linguistics and sociolinguistics") are frowned upon; the Indiana University style guide uses this example and says "Do not 'take a shortcut' when the first expression is ordinarily open" (i.e., ordinarily two separate words). "Therefore, the first name is the family's original surname, passed down to them by an ancestor, while the "dit" name is … Unicode distinguishes the hyphen from the general interpunct. This usage is now common and specifically recommended in some style guides. Because early has both adverbial and adjectival senses, its hyphenation can attract attention; some editors, due to comparison with advanced-stage disease and adult-onset disease, like the parallelism of early-stage disease and early-onset disease. [25] In Greek these marks were known as enotikon, officially romanized as a hyphen. For example, Aaron Johnson and Samantha Taylor-Wood became Aaron Taylor-Johnson and Sam Taylor-Johnson. Noun–noun compound modifiers may also be written without a hyphen when no confusion is likely: grade point average and department store manager. Social media posts, such as Twitter and Facebook, are not considered academic sources.Use them as a starting point and reference to your academic research. Unix also uses a space followed by a hyphen to introduce switches. Bureau international des poids et mesures, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Webster's Third New International Dictionary, English compound § Hyphenated compound modifiers, Prefix > List of English derivational prefixes, "Using Hyphens in Compound Adjectives (and Exceptions to the Rule)", "Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI)", National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hellenic Organization for Standardization, Wiktionary list of English phrases spelled with a hyphen, word breaking, line breaks, and special characters (including hyphens) in HTML, Unicode interpretation of SOFT HYPHEN breaks ISO 8859-1 compatibility, hypho-o online soft hyphen insertion tool, United States Government Printing Office Style Manual 2000, Intellectual property protection of typefaces, Punctuation and other typographic symbols, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hyphen&oldid=1003840977, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with Greek-language sources (el), Articles which use infobox templates with no data rows, Articles that may contain original research from January 2016, All articles that may contain original research, All articles needing additional references, Articles needing additional references from January 2016, Articles needing additional references from November 2020, Articles containing Romanian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 January 2021, at 23:22. (2013). 2. All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented or make hanging 0.5 inch from the left margin. To cite works of others, APA style uses an author-date citation method. Sometimes the term is limited to non-breaking hyphens. However, this has become rare. For example, Chiang Kai-shek's last name is Chiang and Mao Tse-tung's last name is Mao. In nineteenth-century American literature, hyphens were also used irregularly to divide syllables in words from indigenous North American languages, without regard for etymology or pronunciation:[13] e.g. Many last names in China and Korea are one syllable, and first names often consist of two names … 27 Likes, 0 Comments - Cindy Jenkins Group (@cindyjenkinsgroupjax_exp) on Instagram: “It’s official, I got my younger daughter, Madison, all settled in at USF in Tampa. Use of hyphens, as opposed to the slashes used in the English language, is specified for international standards. At the time hyphenation was joining two words that would otherwise be read separately by a low tie mark between the two words. Asian Social Science, 9(5), 34-50. doi:10.5539/ass.v9n5p34. The non-breaking hyphen, nonbreaking hyphen, or no-break hyphen looks identical to the regular hyphen, but word processors treat it as a letter so that the hyphenated word will not be divided at the hyphen should this fall at what would be the end of a line of text; instead, either the whole hyphenated word will remain in full at the end of the line or it will go in full to the beginning of the next line. For this purpose, the concept of a soft hyphen (discretionary hyphen, optional hyphen) was introduced, allowing such manual specification of a place where a hyphenated break is allowed but not forced. It can be a tedious task to insert the soft hyphens by hand, and tools using hyphenation algorithms are available that do this automatically. Similarly, more-beautiful scenery (with a mass-noun) is distinct from more beautiful scenery. The comparative value relevance of donation and advertising expenditure before and after the global financial crisis in Korea. Some authors do this consistently, others only for disambiguation; in this case, egg-beater, egg beater, and eggbeater are all common. Format: When the author's name is mentioned in the sentence, you may omit this name from the parentheses to avoid redundancy, using only the date. In both examples, the authors of the publications are incorrectly cited by their first names. The characters below do not have the Unicode property of "Hyphen" despite their names:[29], (See interpunct and bullet (typography) for more round characters. However, if an adverb can also function as an adjective, then a hyphen may be or should be used for clarity, depending on the style guide. A few short and common words—such as well, ill, little, and much—attract special attention in this category. APA citation basics. Happy referencing! ing). [17], When a compound modifier follows the term to which it applies, a hyphen is typically not used if the compound is a temporary compound. If the author's first name is hyphenated, include the hyphen with a full stop after each initial (e.g. A separate title page, containing title, all author names, affiliations, and the contact information of … Thus, the correct format for the example citation given above is (Chang & Chou, 2011) and the correct format for the example reference is as follows: Kwon, G. J. Germans[citation needed] and Slavs also used Roman numerals for the month; 14‑VII‑1789 (14 July 1789), for example, is one way of writing the first Bastille Day, though this usage is rapidly falling out of favour. Without the hyphen, there is potential confusion about whether the writer means a "player of American football" or an "American player of football" and whether the writer means paintings that are "little celebrated" or "celebrated paintings" that are little. Asian Social Science, 9(5), 34-50. doi:10.5539/ass.v9n5p34. Typically it is called a dash or switch in this context. Never put the first or last letter of a word at the end or beginning of a line, and don't put two-letter suffixes at the beginning of a new line: lovely (Do not separate in a way which leaves ly beginning a new line.) This can be a Unicode hyphen, a hyphen-minus, or a non-breaking hyphen (see below). For example, "that gentleman is well respected", not "that gentleman is well-respected"; or "a patient-centered approach was used" but "the approach was patient centered. Hyphen-minus Non-breaking hyphen Hebrew maqaf The hyphen ‐ is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word. You probably know that some Asian countries follow the practice of writing a person's last name before the first name. retreat and re‑treat would be indistinguishable with a line break after re), or in languages other than English (e.g., a line break at the hyphen in Irish an t‑athair or Romanian s‑a would be undesirable). Apart from the separator used the non-year form of the date format is also identical to the standard American representation. As the character is also used as a minus sign, it is formally denoted U+002D - HYPHEN-MINUS. For example, wholly owned subsidiary and quickly moving vehicle are unambiguous, because the adverbs clearly modify the adjectives: "quickly" cannot modify "vehicle". Use is often dictated by convention rather than fixed rules, and hyphenation styles may vary between authors; for example, orang-utan is also written as orangutan or orang utan, and lily-of-the-valley may be hyphenated or not. If a template does not appear, you may need to allow pop-ups from your browser. Use the following format: Username or group name; Date as year, month, day. We want…” Some married couples compose a new surname (sometimes referred to as a double-barrelled name) for their new family by combining their two surnames with a hyphen. Dit (pronounced "dee") is a French form of the word dire, which means "to say," and in the case of dit names is translated loosely as "that is to say," or "called. In the United States, the term hyphenated American refers to the use of a hyphen (in some styles of writing) between the name of an ethnicity and the word "American" in compound nouns, e.g., as in "Irish-American".It was an epithet used from 1890 to 1920 to disparage Americans who were of foreign birth or origin, and who displayed an allegiance to a foreign country through the use of … The hyphen-minus has limited use in indicating subtraction; for example, compare 4+3−2=5 (minus) and 4+3-2=5 (hyphen-minus) — in most fonts the hyphen-minus will not have the optimal width, thickness, or vertical position, whereas the minus character will. List authors' last name first followed by the first and middle initials (ex. When the unit names are spelled out, this recommendation does not apply: a 25-kilogram sphere, a roll of 35-millimetre film.[22]. eval-u-ate (Separate only on either side of the u; do not leave the initial e- … In cases where the source itself is being cited rather than the author, the parentheses around … This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). Do you know what is wrong with the APA citation (Hsiu-Hua & Huey-Wen, 2011) or with the following APA reference: Gee Jung, K. (2013). [27], The modern format of the hyphen originated with Johannes Gutenberg of Mainz, Germany, c. 1455 with the publication of his 42-line Bible. (2001). Apart from dash and minus sign, Unicode has multiple hyphen characters:[29]. Self-identifying citations and references in the article text should be avoided. Some stark examples of semantic changes caused by the placement of hyphens to mark attributive phrases: The first known documentation of the hyphen is in the grammatical works of Dionysius Thrax. [24] A commonly used alternative style is the hyphenated string (hormone-receptor-positive cells, cell-cycle-related factors). Thus 28-year-old woman and twenty-eight-year-old woman or 32-foot wingspan and thirty-two-foot wingspan, but the woman is 28 years old and a wingspan of 32 feet. The hyphen should not be confused with dashes (figure dash ‒, en dash –, em dash —, horizontal bar ―), which are longer and have … [14] This usage is now rare and proscribed, except in some place names such as Ah-gwah-ching. In the ASCII character encoding, the hyphen is character 45. When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. How to cite in IEEE style. Connecting hyphens are used in a large number of miscellaneous compounds, other than modifiers, such as in lily-of-the-valley, cock-a-hoop, clever-clever, tittle-tattle and orang-utan. [15] Compound modifiers can extend to three or more words, as in ice-cream-flavored candy, and can be adverbial as well as adjectival (spine-tinglingly frightening). This interrupted the letters in the last word, requiring the remaining letters be carried over to the start of the line below. A blinded manuscript without any author names and affiliations in the text or on the title page. When one of the parts of the modifier is a proper noun or a proper adjective, there is no hyphen (e.g., "a South American actor").[19]. Note: The SOFT HYPHEN serves as an invisible marker used to specify a place in text where a hyphenated break is allowed without forcing a line break in an inconvenient place if the text is reflowed. The Gutenberg printing press required words made up of individual letters of type to be held in place by a surrounding non-printing rigid frame. However, this is not always desirable behavior, especially when it could lead to ambiguity (e.g. In parts of Europe and in India, the hyphen is used to delineate parts within a written date. For example, one must list titles of sources after names … Unicode also encodes the minus and hyphen separately, as U+2212 − and U+2010 ‐ respectively. [17] Suspended hyphens are also used, though less commonly, when the base word comes first, such as in "investor-owned and -operated". Basic Rules 1. Citations in-text are acknowledged with (Author, Date) or Author (Date). For example, The Economist Style Guide advises: "Adverbs do not need to be linked to participles or adjectives by hyphens in simple constructions ... Less common adverbs, including all those that end -ly, are less likely to need hyphens. Complete the template form with information from your source. [26], With the introduction of letter-spacing in the Middle Ages, the hyphen, still written beneath the text, reversed its meaning. To write in-text citations in IEEE style, the citations should be numbered and included in square brackets. For example, Chiang Kai-shek's last name is Chiang and Mao Tse-tung's last name is Mao. (In contrast, the hyphen in "a more-important reason" is not necessary, because the syntax cannot be misinterpreted.) In contrast, a hyphen that is always displayed and printed is called a "hard hyphen". If the first name is hyphenated (e.g., … Acknowledge a citation with author's last name and publication year. Scholar Assignments are your one stop shop for all your assignment help needs.We include a team of writers who are highly experienced and thoroughly vetted to ensure both their expertise and professional behavior. With already-hyphenated names, some parts are typically dropped. [17] This is different, however, from instances where prefixes that are normally closed up (styled solidly) are used suspensively. International standard ISO 8601, which was accepted as European Standard EN 28601 and incorporated into various typographic style guides (e.g., DIN 5008 in Germany), brought about a new standard using the hyphen. 2D16, is assigned to this character in Unicode. When an object is compounded with a verbal noun, such as egg-beater (a tool that beats eggs), the result is sometimes hyphenated. Although software (hyphenation algorithms) can often automatically make decisions on when to hyphenate a word at a line break, it is also sometimes useful for the user to be able to insert cues for those decisions (which are dynamic in the online medium, given that text can be reflowed). Non-hyphenated is an example of a hyphenated word. Most of the time you’ll first want to give an author’s surname, followed by initials: Jones, A. This is applied whether numerals or words are used for the numbers. Few examples of IEEE editorial style manual include guidelines regarding list of preferred spellings and hyphenated words, use of en and em dashes in page numbers, reference numbers, capitalization, etc.